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Cryogenics

(cryogenics)





Cryogenics is the study of low temperatures or theproduction of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology , the study ofthe effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation . Likewise, cryonics is the nascent study ofthe cryopreservation of the human body, is not an established science like cryogenics and is viewed with skepticism by mostscientists and doctors today.

Liquefied gases , such asliquid nitrogen and liquid helium , areused in many cryogenic applications. These gases are held in special containers known as Dewar flasks . Dewar flasks are named after their inventor, James Dewar , the man who first liquified hydrogen . Everyday vacuum flasks are a Dewar flask fitted in a protective casing.

Leiden , Netherlands is sometimescalled "The Coldest Place on Earth", because of the revolutions in cryogenics that happened there. Some of these were thediscovery of superconductivity by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes , the liquefaction of helium byKamerlingh Onnes, and the solidification of helium by Kamerlingh Onnes' pupil, Willem Hendrik Keesom .

The study of superconductivity is called cryoelectronics . Theutilization of these sciences is called cryotronics .

See also:



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