In modern usage, civil engineering is a broad field of engineering that deals with the planning, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures as they related toearth, water, or civilization and their processes. Most civil engineering today deals with roads, structures, water supply,sewer, flood control, or traffic.
Engineering has developed from observations of the ways natural and manmade systems react and from the development ofempirical equations that provide bases for design. Civil engineering is the broadest of the engineering fields. In factengineering was once divided into only two fields--military and civil. All the engineering specialties have derived from civilengineering. Civil engineering is still an umbrella field comprised of many related specialities.
Sub-disciplines of civil engineering
General civil engineering
General civil engineering is concerned with the overall interface of fixed projects with the greater world. General civilengineers work closely with surveyors and specialized civil engineers to fit and serve fixed projects within their given site,community and terrain by designing grading, drainage (flood control), paving, water supply, sewer service, electric andcommunications supply and land (real property) divisions. General engineers spend much of their time visiting project sites,developing community/neighborhood consensus, and preparing construction plans.
Structural engineering is concerned with the designof bridges, buildings, offshore oil platforms, dams etc. Structuraldesign and structural analysis are components of structural engineering and a key component in the structuraldesign process. This involves computing the stresses and forces at work within a structure. There are some structural engineerswho work in non-typical areas, designing aircraft, spacecraft and even biomedical devices.
Supporting structural engineering is the field of geotechnical engineering . The importance of geotechnical engineering can hardly be overstated:buildings must be connected to the ground. Geotechnicalengineering is concerned with soil properties, foundations, footings, soil-structure interaction and soil dynamics.
Transportation engineering is concerned with queueing theory and traffic flow planning, roadway geometric designand driver behavior patterns. Simulation of traffic operation is performed through use of trip generation, traffic assignmentalgorithims which can be highly complex computational problems.
Environmental engineering deals with thetreatment of chemical, biological, and/or thermal waste, the purification of water and air, and the remediation of sites impacted by prior waste disposal. Among the topics covered by environmentalengineering are water purification , sewage treatment , and hazardous waste management. Environmental engineering is related to the fields of hydrology , geohydrology and meteorology insofar as knowledge of water and flows are required to understandpollutant transport. Environmental engineers are also involved in pollution reduction, green engineering and industrial ecology .
Environmental engineering is the modern term for Sanitary engineering . Some other terms in use are public healthengineering and environmental health engineering .
Hydraulic engineering is concerned with the flow andconveyance of fluids, principally water. This area of engineering is, of course, intimately related to the design of bridges,dams, channels, canals, and levees, and to both sanitary and environmental engineering.
Construction engineering involves planning andexecution of the designs from transportation, site development, hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnicalengineers.
Civil engineering also includes material science . Engineeringmaterials include concrete, steel and recently, polymers and ceramics with potential engineering application.
A popular misconception is that civil engineering is far from the exciting frontiers in mathematics and computer science . In actuality,much of what is now computer science was driven by work in civilengineering, where structural and network analysis problems required parallel computations and development of advancedalgorithms.
There are also civil engineers who work in the area of safetyengineering , applying probabilistic methods to structuraldesign, safety analysis and even estimates of insurance losses due to natural and man-made hazards.
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