The academic discipline humanecology deals with the relationship between humans and their (natural)environment. The central question is, how do humans and human societies interact with nature and with their environment ?
Establishing the field of human ecology
In the USA , human ecology was established as a sociological field in the late 1970s by William R. Catton and Riley E. Dunlap , building onto theearlier works on human ecology by Chicago School 's Robert E. Park . Onemain idea of Catton and Dunlap was to go away from the Durkheimian paradigm of explaining social facts only with social facts. Instead, they includedphysical and biological facts as independent variables influencing social structure and other social phenomenons. This change of paradigm can be described as a change from aclassical sociological view of human exemptionalism to a new view (named new ecological paradigm by Catton andDunlap). Humans are no longer the exeptional species that can use culture to adaptonto new environments and environmental change, and that is influenced more by social than by biological variables, but they areseen as one species out of many that interacts with a bounded natural environment.
A conflict line between this new paradigm and the classical sociological approach is the de-valuating of society and culture.Human ecology views human communities and human populations as part of the ecosystem of earth. In this view, sociology would be only a sub-discipline of ecology -- the specialecology of the species homo sapiens sapiens . Ofcourse, this is seen as an affront by most sociologists.
It is disputed if human ecology is a sub-discipline of sociology, or if it is a sub-discipline of ecology. A point thatstrengthens the latter position is the methodological approach of human ecology, that is orientation rather along the lines ofnatural science then along the lines of social sciences. The inclusion or exclusion of human ecology in to sociology propervaries between countries and schools of sociological thinking. Environmental sociology is a field of sociology which encompasses the interactions between humansand nature/natural environment, but is rooted in the methodological and theoretical canon of sociology. Sometimes human ecologyis seen as part of environmental sociology, sometimes it is seen as something completly different. Influences can also be seenbetween human ecology and the field of political ecology .
Quotes on human ecology
Glaeser, Bernhard (1996): »Humanökologie: Der sozialwissenschaftliche Ansatz«, in Naturwissenschaften, 83 (1996),145-152.
human eoclogy, social, humna ecology, field, human eology, sociological, human ecologi, new, human eclogy, view, human cology, change, huma ecology, catton, human ecoloy, sub, human ecloogy, approach, , communities, human ecolog, society, humanecology, park, humane cology, variables, human ecoolgy, influences, huamn ecology, culture, human ecolgoy, environments, hmuan ecology, lines, uhman ecology, sometimes, huma necology, thinking, human ceology, establishing, human ecoloyg, resources, humn ecology, behaviour, human ecolgy, holistic, human ecoogy, fieldthat, huan ecology, better, hman ecology, understand, uman ecology, strategies
This article is completely or partly from Wikipedia - The Free Online Encyclopedia. Original Article. The text on this site is made available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation Licence. We take no responsibility for the content, accuracy and use of this article.