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Limnology is a discipline that concerns the study of fresh waters, specifically lakes , ponds and rivers (both naturaland manmade), including their biological , physical , chemical , and hydrological aspects.

François-Alphonse Forel (1841-1912) establishedthe field with his studies of Lake Geneva . Limnology traditionally is closelyrelated to hydrobiology , which isconcerned with the application of the principles and methods of physics, chemistry, geology , and geography to ecological problems.



  • American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
  • Australian Society for Limnology
  • European Society of Limnology and Oceanography
  • Italian Association for Oceanology and Limnology
  • The Japanese Society of Limnology
  • Societas Internationalis Limnologiae ( limnology.org )


  • Advances inLimnology
  • Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology
  • Journal ofLimnology
  • Limnology and Oceanography

See also


  • Gerald A. Cole ,Textbook of Limnology, 4th ed. ( Waveland Press , 1994) ISBN 0881338001
  • A.J.Horne & C.R. Goldman : Limnology (1994),ISBN: 0070236739
  • G. E. Hutchinson ,A Treatise on Limnology, 3 vols. (1957-1975) - classic but dated
  • H.B.N. Hynes , The Ecologyof Running Waters (1970)
  • Jacob Kalff , Limnology( Prentice Hall , 2001)
  • B. Moss , Ecology of FreshWaters ( Blackwell , 1998)
  • Robert G. Wetzel ,Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems, 3rd ed. ( Academic Press , 2001) ISBN 0127447601 - highly regarded
  • Robert G. Wetzel & Gene E. Likens ,Limnological Analyses, 3rd ed. ( Springer-Verlag , 2000)

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