The study of criminal justice traditionally revolves around three main components of the criminaljustice system:
Nowadays, it is sometimes argued that psychiatry is also a central part ofthe criminal justice system.
The pursuit of criminal justice is, like all forms of " justice " or "fairness" or"process", essentially the pursuit of an ideal . Thus this field has many relations to anthropology , economics , history , law , political science , psychology , sociology , and theology . The establishment of criminal justice, as an academic field, is generally accredited to August Vollmer , during the 1920s . By 1950 , ~1,000 students were in the field; by 1975 ,~100,000 students were in the field; by 1998 , ~350,000 students were in the field. Anotable center for criminal justice studies is the John Jay College of Criminal Justice .
One question which is presented by the idea of creating justice involves the rights of victims and the rights of accusedcriminals , and how these individual rights are related to oneanother and to social control . It is generally argued that victim's anddefendant's rights are inversely related, and individual rights,as a whole, are likewise viewed as inversely related to social control.
Rights, of course, imply responsibilities or duties, and this in turn requires a great deal of consensus in the community regarding the appropriate definitions for many of these legalterms.
In addition, there are models of criminal justice systems which try to explain how these institutions achieve justice.
The US Criminal Justice system
"There is a criminal justice process through which each offender passes from the police , to the courts , and back unto the streets. The inefficiency,fall-out, and failure of purpose during this process is notorious." -- US National Commission on the Causes and Prevention ofViolence
" Three strikes you're out " is claimed to be cruel and unusual punishment by its opponents, whoargue that the U.S. system is too dependent on retributivejustice , and is failing socially as well as criminally.
A society should not be judged on how it treats its outstanding citizens but by how it treats itscriminals..... Fyodor Dostoyevsky
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