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Cell biology


Cell biology (cellular biology) is an academic discipline which studies the physiological properties of cells , as well as their behaviours , intercellular interactions, and environment ; this is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. Cell biology researches both single-celled organisms like bacteria and specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans .

Cell biology is closely related to genetics , biochemistry , molecular biology and developmental biology .


Purification of cells and their parts

Purification of cells and their parts is achieved in the following ways:

Movement of proteins

Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes , either in the cytoplasm or in the endoplasmicreticulum (ER). Membrane proteins are synthesized in the ER andare further processed in the Golgi apparatus . From the Golgi,membrane proteins can move to the plasma membrane or to othersubcellular comparments. The ER and Golgi can be thought of as the "membrane protein synthesis compartment" and the "membraneprotein processing compartment", respectively. There is a constant flux of proteins through these compartments. ER andGolgi-resident proteins associate with other proteins and remain in their respective compartments. Other proteins "flow" throughthe ER and Golgi to the plasma membrane. From the plasma membrane, proteins destined to be degraded move back into intracellularcompartments where they are broken down to amino acids .

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General subfields within biology

Anatomy | Bioinformatics | Botany | Ecology | Evolutionary biology | Genetics | Marine biology | Human biology | Cell biology | Microbiology | Molecular biology | Biochemistry | Origin of life | Paleontology | Physiology | Taxonomy | Xenobiology | Zoology

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