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Pharmacy historically is the profession of dispensing medication . More recently, the term has come to include other functions relatedto patient care (clinical functions), some of which are now mandated byfederal or state law . These include monitoring medical prescriptions for appropriateness, for adverse drug interactions and following the course of therapy to insure positive outcomes. Pharmacy is thus distinct from pharmacology , an academic discipline which includes thestudy of mechanisms of drug action . In most jurisdictions, pharmacists are regulated separately from physicians hence theseparate profession . In other jurisdictions , the doctor is allowed to dispense drugs themselves and the practice of pharmacy isintegrated with that of the physician . Where so regulated, only pharmacists maydispense certain pharmaceuticals , typically narcotics and antibiotics .

In the United States, a person must pass the Naplex examination before they canpractice pharmacy.

A pharmacy (known also as a chemist's or in American English a drugstore, or historically an Apothecary ) is also a place where pharmacists (chemists) practise the profession of pharmacy.Many retailers (including grocery stores and mass merchandisers ) now include a pharmacy as department of their store. Many pharmacies also sellhousehold items. Within pharmacies, the term "dispensary" is sometimes used to distinguish that part of the store whichpharmacists practise pharmacy. The dispensary is subject to pharmacy legislation. The rest of the pharmacy is simply a retailstore.

Pharmacies are also located within hospitals and nursing homes and function as a department of these larger organizations. Such pharmacies are knownwithin the pharmacy industry as "hospital pharmacies" to distinguish from "retail" or "community" pharmacies. Pharmacists inhospital pharmacies often have more complex medications whereas pharmacists in community pharmacies often have more complexbusiness and customer relations issues. In medical buildings where physicians and other medicalprofessionals congregate, a small community pharmacy may be present as well for the convenience of patients . Such a "medical pharmacy" is legally distinct from the other medical professionals, unlike the pharmaciesintegrated into hospitals . A medical pharmacy is in fact a community pharmacy .

The icon most commonly associated with the practise of pharmacy in the United States is the mortar and pestle ; in France , it is a green Greek cross .

See also

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