Health science is the discipline of appliedscience which deals with human and animal health . There are two parts to healthscience: the study, research , and knowledge of health and the application of thatknowledge to improve health, cure diseases , and understanding how humans and animalsfunction. Research builds on the pure sciences of biology , chemistry , and physics and also social sciences (for examplemedical sociology).
There are a wide range of traditional areas of health science. The most common areas are: medicine , nursing , midwifery , and various forms of therapy to supplement the healingprocess and restore proper activity (e.g. recreational , physical occupational , speech , and respiratory ). Health scienceincludes both the study and application of preventing and curing human diseases and disorders. Medical doctors include physicians and surgeons . There are many different branches of medicine; the other health care professions also have specialties orfocus on specific populations or settings of care. Public health studiesthe effect of environmental factors such as available health care resources on the health of the general population, oftenfocusing on particular populations, such as mothers and children. Dieticians educate people about proper nutrition ,particularly specific dietary needs of populations such as people with diabetes , breastfeeding women, and people with celiac disease. Other less common medical areasinclude first aid and triage .
Dental health has grown in importance in recent decades making dentistry amajor field of health sciences. Counselling , hospice care , home care , nutrition , medical social work , alternative medicine , pharmacology , and toxicology are all considered part ofhealth science.
Veterinary medicine is the health science dedicatedexclusively to the care of animals. Veterinary medicine is involved in preventing and curing animal diseases and disorders,inspecting animal originated food (like milk and meat) and animal husbandry.
Contemporary Themes within Health Science
Because health science deals with human life, issues of medicalethics , an important area of ethics , arise frequently. Medical ethics includesquestions on topics such as a patient's right to privacy. Euthanasia , abortion , human cloning and genetic engineering are especially controversial issuesdirectly related to health science.
Health science fields are as old as the human race. Humans have always been in need of solutions to various health relatedissues, such as childbirth. With modern technology and the backing of the pure sciences, the scientific accuracy of these fieldshas greatly improved. Nevertheless, many cultures have and continue to use various herbs and other culturally specific solutionsto help solve health problems. These solutions may or may not be backed by any scientific support.
Conventional Western practices
Complementary and alternativemedicine
Folk medicine and related traditions
Health practices of historical interest
External links and references
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