Collective bargaining is the process of negotiation between trade unions (or labor unions , as they are called in theUSA) and employers (represented by management ) in respect of the terms andconditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours, working conditions and grievance procedures, and about the rightsand responsibilities of trade unions. The term is reputed to have been coined by the British Academic Beatrice Webb in the latenineteenth century to describe a process alternative to that of individual bargaining between employer and individual employees.Other writers have emphasised the conflict-resolution aspects of collective bargaining, but in Britain the most importantrefinement was that made by Allan Flanders, who defined it as a process of rule-making, leading to joint regulation in industry.The term is usually seen as necessarily containing an element of negotiation and hence as distinct from processes ofconsultation, from which negotiation is absent, and where outcomes are determined unilaterally by the employer. In Britaincollective bargaining for many years has been, and been endorsed as, the dominant and most appropriate means of regulatingworkers' terms and conditions of employment, in line with ILO Convention No. 84. However, the importance of collective bargainingin Britain and elswhere has been declining considerably since the early 1980s.
Buidens, Wayne, and others. "Collective Gaining: A Bargaining Alternative." PHI DELTA KAPPAN 63 (1981): 244-245.
DeGennaro, William, and Kay Michelfeld. "Joint Committees Take the Rancor out of Bargaining with Our Teachers." THE AMERICANSCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 173 (1986): 38-39.
Herman, Jerry J. "With Collaborative Bargaining, You Work WITH the Union--Not Against It." THE AMERICAN SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL172 (1985): 41-42, 47.
Huber, Joe; and Jay Hennies. "Fix on These Five Guiding Lights, and Emerge from the Bargaining Fog." THE AMERICAN SCHOOL BOARDJOURNAL 174 (1987): 31.
Liontos, Demetri. COLLABORATIVE BARGAINING: CASE STUDIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Eugene: Oregon School Study Council, Universityof Oregon, September 1987. OSSC Bulletin Series. 27 pages. ED number not yet assigned.
McMahon, Dennis O. "GETTING TO YES." Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Association of SchoolAdministrators, New Orleans, LA, February 20-23, 1987. ED 280 188.
Namit, Chuck; and Larry Swift. "Prescription for Labor Pains: Combine Bargaining with Problem Solving." THE AMERICAN SCHOOLBOARD JOURNAL 174 (1987): 24.
Nyland, Larry. "Win/Win Bargaining Takes Perseverance." THE EXECUTIVE EDUCATOR 9 (1987): 24.
Smith, Patricia; and Russell Baker. "An Alternative Form of Collective Bargaining." PHI DELTA KAPPAN 67 (1986): 605-607.
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