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The Talmud (התלמוד) is considered an authoritative record of rabbinicdiscussions on Jewish law , Jewishethics , customs, legends and stories. It is a fundamental source of legislation, customs, case histories and moralexhortations. The Talmud comprises two components, the Mishnah and the Gemara . It expands on the earlier writings in the Torah in general and in the Mishnah in particular, and is the basis for all later codes of Jewish law , and much of Rabbinic literature . The Talmud is also traditionally referred to as Shas (an abbreviation ofshishah sedarim, the "six orders" of the Mishnah).


Structure and Function

Rabbinical Judaism has always held that the books of the Tanakh were transmitted in parallel with a living, oral tradition . (The Torah "lists the rules" while the oral law deals with application.) The Talmud, ultimately, constitutes the authoritative redaction ofJudaism's oral tradition.

Mishna and Gemara

The Jewish Oral law was recorded by Rabbi Judah haNasi and redacted asthe Mishnah in 200 CE. The oral traditions were committed to writing to preservethem, as it became apparent that the Palestine community, and its learning, was threatened. The rabbis of the Mishnah are knownas Tannaim (sing. Tanna); teachings in the Mishnah are generally reported in the name of a Tanna.

Over the next three centuries the Mishna underwent analysis and debate in Israel and Babylon (the world's major Jewishcommunities). This analysis is known as Gemara. The rabbis of the Gemara are referred to as Amoraim (sing.Amora). See Gemara for further discussion.

The Mishnah and the Gemara together comprise the Talmud. The Talmud is thus the combination of a core text, the Mishnah, or“redaction” (from the verb shanah שנה, to repeat, revise) and subsequent analysis andcommentary, the gemara, or “completion” (from gamar גמר, to complete).

Although the debates between the Amoraim focus on clarifying the words and views of the Tannaim, the Gemarais not strictly limited to an analysis of the Mishnah's text. It also brings in sources from the Mishnaic era, which were notincluded in the Mishnah compendium, which are called Tosefta (additions); the Talmudrefers to these as beraitot, (the word for “outside”). The gemara also supplements the Mishna with haggadic (oraggadic) materials and biblical expositions, and is a source for history and legend. See Ein Yaakov .

The Talmud thus constitutes the authoritative redaction of Judaism's oral tradition. It is the major influence on Jewishbelief and thought. Furthermore, although not a formal legal code, it is the basis for all later codes of Jewish law , and thus continues to exert a major influence on Halakha and Jewish religious practice; see the article on Rabbinic literature and the introduction of Maimonides to his Mishneh Torah [1] .

Orders and Tractates

The Mishna consists of six orders (sedarim). Each of the six orders contains between 7 and 12 tractates, calledmasechtot. Each masechet is divided into smaller units called mishnayot (mishna - singular). In theTalmud, not every tractate in the Mishnah has Gemara, furthermore, the order of the tractates in the Talmud is in some casesdifferent to the Mishnah; see the discussion on each Seder.

  • First Order: Zeraim ("Seeds"). 11 tractates. It deals with agriculturallaws and prayers.
  • Second Order: Moed ("Festival Days"). 12 tractates. This pertains to the lawsof the Sabbath and the Festivals.
  • Third Order: Nashim ("Women"). 7 tractates. Concerns marriage anddivorce.
  • Fourth Order: Nezikin ("Damages"). 10 tractates. Deals with civil andcriminal law.
  • Fifth Order: Kodshim ("Holy things"). 11 tractates. This involvessacrificial rites, the Temple , and the dietary laws.
  • Sixth order: Tohorot ("Purity"). 12 tractates. This pertains to ritualand the laws of family purity.

The two Talmuds

There is only one Mishnah but there are two distinct gemaras: the Yerushalmi and the Bavli, and two corresponding Talmuds.(Today the word "Talmud", when used without qualification, refers to the Babylonian Talmud.)

Talmud Yerushalmi (Jerusalem Talmud)

See Jerusalem Talmud .

The Gemara here is a synopsis of almost 200 years of analysis of the Mishna in the Academies in Israel. Due to the location ofthe Academies, the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel are discussed in great detail. It was redacted in the year 350 C.E. byRav Muna and Rav Yossi in Israel. Together, this Gemara and the Mishnah are known as Talmud Yerushalmi (The Jerusalem Talmud ); however, the name is a misnomer, as it was not writtemin Jerusalem. As such it is also known more accurately as the Palestinian Talmud or The Talmud of the Land ofIsrael.

References to the Yerushalmi are usually not by page (as in the Babylonian Talmud) but by the Mishna which is under discussion. References are therefore in the format of [Tractate chapter:Mishna] (e.g.Berachot 1:2). As the Babylonian Talmud is considered more influential, references to the Yerushalmi are generally prefaced by"Yerushalmi" to clarify their origin.

The classical commentaries on the Yerushalmi are the P'nei Moshe and the Korban ha-Eidah, which are printedalongside the Talmudic text in most versions of the Yerushalmi.

Talmud Bavli (Babylonian Talmud)

The Gemara here is a synopsis of more than 300 years of analysis of the Mishna in the Babylonian Academies. It was redacted asa formal collection by Ashi and Ravina , twoleaders of the Babylonian Jewish community, around the year 550 CE. Editorial work by the Savoraim or RabbeinuSevorai (post-Talmudic rabbis), continued on this text for the next 250 years; much of the text did not reach its final formuntil around 700 CE. (See eras within Jewishlaw .) The Mishnah and Babylonian Gemara together form the Talmud Bavli (the "Babylonian Talmud").

In modern editions, the Gemara is never printed by itself, but always together with the Mishnah. The "canonical edition" isthe Vilna edition, typeset by the widow and Brothers Romm. Because this "Vilna Shas" is used to the exclusion of all otherprintings, the typesetting, pagination, etc., are today frequently thought of as integral to the gemara. The Babylonian Talmudcomprises the full Mishna, the 37 gemaras, and the extra-canonical minortractates , in 5,894 folios.

A folio of Talmud is known as a daf; each daf has two amudim labelled א and ב, sides A and B.The referencing by daf is relatively recent and dates from the early Talmud printings of the 17th century . Earlier rabbinic literature generally only refers to the tractate or chapters within a tractate. Nowadays,reference is made in format [Tractate daf a/b] (e.g. Berachot 23b).

The primary commentary on the Babylonian Talmud is that of Rashi (RabbiSolomon ben Isaac, 1040-1105). The commentary is comprehensive, covering almost the entire Talmud. It provides a full explanationof the words, and of the logical structure of each Talmudic passage. The commentary known as Tosafot ("additions" or "supplements") is also regarded as basic to a full understanding of the daf. Itcomprises collected commentaries on the Talmud, compiled mainly by French and German Rabbis (amongst them Rashi’s grandsons). It carries on the Talmud's own methods of dialectical argument anddebate. Some have seen the Tosafot as an addition to the Talmud itself (“the Talmud on the Talmud”); it alsofunctions as a supplement to Rashi's basic commentary. Both commentaries appear in virtually every edition of the Talmud since itwas first printed.

Comparison of style and subject matter

The Talmud Yerushalami is fragmentary and difficult to read, even for experienced Talmudists. However, the Yerushalmicovers a number of topics specific to the land of Israel which are not covered in the Bavli, such as the agricultural laws. (Thelaws such as leaving the corners of one's field for the poor, leaving one's land fallow every seven years, etc. only apply withinthe borders of the land of Israel, and thus, the rabbis of the Bavli who had lived in the Diaspora for generations, in manycases, did not consider themselves experts in these laws.)

The redaction of the Babylonian Talmud is much more careful and precise. However, the gemara only exists for 37 out of the 63tractates of the Mishna: most laws from the Orders Zeraim (agricultural laws limited to the land of Israel) and Toharot (ritualpurity laws related to the Temple and sacrificial system) had little practical relevance and were therefore not included. (Thereis Babylonian gemara on Qodashim - this is probably because the study of the sacrificial regulations is generally thought of asbeing on par with actually performing sacrifices.) Over time, the Bavli has been studied more intensively, and thus has aplethora of commentary; further, because it is later, the Bavli is assumed to supersede the Yerushalmi, and so Jewish practice isgenerally determined based on the Babylonian Talmud.

Attitude to the Talmud within Judaism

The Talmud and its study spread from Babylon to Egypt, northern Africa, Italy, Spain, France, and Germany, regions destined tobecome abodes of the Jewish spirit; and in all these countries Jewish intellectual interest centered in the Talmud.


One great reaction against its supremacy was Karaism , which arose in the verystrong-hold of the Geonim within two centuries after the completion of the Talmud. The movement thus initiated and the influenceof Arabic culture were the two chief factors which aroused the dormant forces of Judaism and gave inspiration to the scientificpursuits to which the Jewish spirit owed many centuries of fruitful activity. This activity did not infringe on the authority ofthe Talmud; for although it combined other ideals and intellectual aims with Talmudic study, the importance of that study was inno way decried by those who devoted themselves to other fields of learning.


Within Judaism, the prime competitor to the primacy of Talmud study was the development of Kabbalah (Jewish esoteric mysticism), which in its modern form arose in the thirteenth century. During the declineof intellectual life among the Jews which began in the sixteenth century, the Talmud was regarded almost as the supreme authorityby the majority of them; and in the same century eastern Europe, especially Poland, became the seat of its study. Even the Biblewas relegated to a secondary place, and the Jewish schools devoted themselves almost exclusively to the Talmud; so that "study"became synonymous with "study of the Talmud."

The Enlightenment

A reaction against the supremacy of the Talmud came with the appearance of Moses Mendelssohn and the intellectual regeneration of Judaism through its contact with the gentileculture of the eighteenth century, the results of this struggle being a closer assimilation to European culture, the creation ofa new science of Judaism, and the movements for religious reform. Despite the quasi-Karaite inclinations which appeared in early Reform Judaism , the majority of Jews clung to the Talmud as the primary document through which mainstream Judaism was understood.

Jews in Western Culture

Modern culture has gradually alienated most Jews from Talmud study; Talmud is now regarded by the majority of Jews as merelyone of the branches of Jewish theology. On the whole Jewish learning has done full justice to the Talmud, many scholars of thenineteenth and twentieth century having made noteworthy contributions to its history and textual criticism, and havingconstituted it the basis of historical and archaeological researches. The study of the Talmud has even attracted the attention ofnon-Jewish scholars; and it has been included in the curricula of universities.

The Talmud in modern-day Judaism

See also How Halakha is viewed today

Orthodox Judaism continues to regard the Talmud as the primarydocument through which Judaism in general, and Halakha in particular, is to beunderstood. Orthodox Jews study the Talmud in depth, but rarely use Talmudic legal methodology to alter Jewish law as codified in later compendia . Orthodox Jews will also study the Talmud for itsown sake; this is considered a great mitzvah , Talmud Torah (see Talmud study , Torah study ).See also: Orthodox beliefsabout Jewish law and tradition .

Conservative Jews also consider Halakha as binding, but do not always accept modern (post-1500) legal codes as absolutely binding; as suchthey use the Talmud in the same way that pre-1500 rabbis used it. This is theoretically still an option in the Orthodoxcommunity, but in practice is used very rarely. See also: The Conservative Jewish view of the Halakha .

Reform and Reconstructionist Jews usually do not teach much Talmud in their Hebrew schools, but they doteach it in their rabbinical seminaries; The world view of liberal Judaism rejects the idea of binding Jewish law , and uses the Talmud as a source of inspiration and moral instruction. See also: The Reform Jewish view of theHalakha and view of theTalmud .

Historical study

The Talmud contains little serious biographical studies of the people discussed therein, and the same tractate will conflatethe points of view of many different people. Yet, sketchy biographies of the Talmudic sages can often be constructed withhistorical detail from Talmudic sources.

Many modern historical scholars have focused on the timing and the formation of the Talmud. A vital question is whether it iscomprised of sources which date from its editor's lifetime, and to what extent is it comprised of earlier, or later sources. AreTalmudic disputes distinguishable along theological or communal lines, and in what ways do different sections derive fromdifferent schools of thought within early Judaism? Can these early sources be identified, and if so, how? In response to thesequestions, modern scholars have adopted a number of different approaches.

  • Traditionally, rabbinic Judaism has viewed the statements in the Talmud as beinghistorically accurate, and written under a subtle form of divine inspiration, sometimes called the Ruach haKodesh, "The Holy Spirit" . Most Orthodox Jews today view the statements described therein areentirely reliable, and accepted as such. Nevertheless, classical rabbinic commentators on the Talmud, known as the Tosafists, andthe early Babylonian rabbis (Savoraim and Geonim) point out that the Talmud is often ambiguous or unclear. In general, textualcriticism of the Talmud from Orthodox point-of-view has ceased after the completion of the Talmud, and modern attempts at textualcriticism are mainly considered heretical, though some Modern Orthodox Rabbis view critical Talmud study as acceptable. [2] .
  • Some scholars hold that there has been extensive editorial reshaping of the stories and statements within the Talmud. Lackingoutside confirming texts, they hold that we cannot confirm the origin or date of most statements and laws, and that we can saylittle for certain about their authorship. In this view, the questions above are impossible to answer. See, for example, theworks of Louis Jacobs and Shaye J.D. Cohen.
  • Some scholars hold that the Talmud have been extensively shaped by later editorial redaction, but that it contains sourceswhich we can identify and describe with some level of reliability. In this view, sources can be identified to some extent becauseera of history and each distinct geographical region has its own unique feature, which one can trace and analyze. Thus, thequestions above may be analyzed. See, for example, the works of Lee Levine and David C. Kraemer.
  • Some scholars hold that many or most the statements and events described in the Talmud usually occurred more or less asdescribed, and that they can be used as serious sources of historical study. In this view, historians do their best to tease outlater editorial additions (itself a very difficult task) and skeptically view accounts of miracles, leaving behind a reliablehistorical text. See, for example, the works of Saul Lieberman, David Weiss Halivni, and Avraham Goldberg.

Changes within the text of the Talmud

The Talmud is presented as an analysis of the Mishnah, as opposed to a later, competing, teaching. Generally, the rabbis ofthe Talmud will not disagree with their counterparts from earlier generations. In fact, for an Amoraic opinion to be accepted asauthoritative it must be in accordance with the teachings of at least one of the Tannaim.

However, some scholars suggest that the current text of the Talmud is artificially smooth; the text, having been edited by theSavoraim (post-Talmudic rabbis), covers up many disagreements between the rabbis of the Mishnah and the rabbis of theTalmud. The present text of the Talmud thus shows little disagreement. Eli Turkel writes:

"What is the reason that later generations never disagree with a halacha in the Talmud? In the introduction to Mishne Torah,Maimonides declares that the sages after the generation of Rav Ashi and Ravina accepted on themselves not to disagree with anyhalacha in the Gemara. Thus, even if individual portions of the Gemara were ADDED BY LATER GENERATIONS they did not change thehalacha. This viewpoint is reiterated by Rav Yosef Karo in his commentary on Mishne Torah (Kesef Mishne on Maimonides'Hilchot Mamrim 2:1, also Rabbi Joseph Soloveitchik in Two Kinds of Tradition in Yahrzeit lectures vol. 1.). Itis interesting to note that Rav Yosef Karo mentions this only with regard to the Mishna and Gemara. There is no such ruling withregard to Gaonim and Rishonim. Rav Yosef Karo, among the early generations of Acharonim, recognized no formal barrier to disagreewith a Rishon or a Gaon.
(Turkel's essay "Rabbinic Authority" in Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah)

Some within Orthodoxy are comfortable with noting that when someone writes "later generations never disagree with a halacha inthe Talmud", this is in effect a legal fiction. In practice, legal authorities did disagree with what was in the Talmud, and insome cases actually changed the Talmud itself. This new Talmudic text then became accepted as binding, and the Jewish communityacts as if there was no change.

External Attacks on the Talmud

The history of the Talmud reflects in part the history of Judaism persisting in a world of hostility and persecution. Almostat the very time that the Babylonian savoraim put the finishing touches to the redaction of the Talmud, the emperor Justinian issued his edict against the abolition of the Greek translation of the Bible inthe service of the Synagogue. This edict, dictated by Christian zeal and anti-Jewish feeling, was the prelude to attacks on theTalmud, conceived in the same spirit, and beginning in the thirteenth century in France , where Talmudic study was thenflourishing.

The charge against the Talmud brought by the convert Nicholas Donin led to the first public disputation between Jews andChristians and to the first burning of copies of the work ( Paris , 1244 ). The Talmud was likewise the subject of a disputation at Barcelona in 1263 between Nahmanides (Rabbi Moses ben Nahman) and Pablo Christiani. This same Pablo Christiani made an attack on theTalmud which resulted in a papal bull against it and in the first censorship,which was undertaken at Barcelona by a commission of Dominicans , who ordered thecancellation of passages reprehensible from a Christian point of view ( 1264 ).

At the disputation of Tortosa in 1413 ,Geronimo de Santa Fé brought forward a number of accusations, including the fateful assertion that the condemnations of pagansand apostates found in the Talmud referred in reality to Christians. Two years later, Pope Martin V , who had convened this disputation, issued a bull (which was destined, however, to remaininoperative) forbidding the Jews to read the Talmud, and ordering the destruction of all copies of it. Far more important werethe charges made in the early part of the sixteenth century bythe convert Johann Pfefferkorn, the agent of the Dominicans. The result of these accusations was a struggle in which the emperorand the pope acted as judges, the advocate of the Jews being JohannReuchlin , who was opposed by the obscurantists and the humanists; and this controversy, which was carried on for the mostpart by means of pamphlets, became the precursor of the Reformation .

An unexpected result of this affair was the complete printed edition of the Babylonian Talmud issued in 1520 by Daniel Bomberg at Venice , under the protection of a papalprivilege. Three years later, in 1523 , Bomberg published the first edition of thePalestinian Talmud. After thirty years the Vatican, which had first permitted the Talmud to appear in print, undertook a campaignof destruction against it. On New-Year's Day ( September 9 , 1553 ) the copies of the Talmud which had been confiscated in compliance with a decree of the Inquisition were burned at Rome ; andsimilar burnings took place in other Italian cities, as at Cremona in 1559 . The Censorship of the Talmud and other Hebrew works was introduced by a papal bull issued in 1554 ; five years later the Talmud was included in the first Index Expurgatorius ; and Pope Pius IV commanded, in 1565 , that the Talmud be deprived of its veryname.

The first edition of the expurgated Talmud, on which most subsequent editions were based, appeared at Basel ( 1578 - 1581 ) with the omissionof the entire treatise of 'Abodah Zarah and of passages considered inimical to Christianity, together with modifications ofcertain phrases. A fresh attack on the Talmud was decreed by PopeGregory XIII (1575-85), and in 1593 Clement VIII renewed the old interdiction against reading or owning it. The increasing study of theTalmud in Poland led to the issue of a complete edition ( Cracow , 1602-5), with arestoration of the original text; an edition containing, so far as known, only two treatises had previously been published at Lublin (1559-76). In 1707 some copies of theTalmud were confiscated in the province of Brandenburg , but were restored totheir owners by command of Frederick, the first king ofPrussia . The last attack on the Talmud took place in Poland in 1757 , when BishopDembowski, at the instigation of the Frankists, convened a public disputation at Kamenetz-Podolsk, and ordered all copies of thework found in his bishopric to be confiscated and burned by the hangman.

The external history of the Talmud includes also the literary attacks made upon it by Christian theologians after theReformation, since these onslaughts on Judaism were directed primarily against that work, even though it was made a subject ofstudy by the Christian theologians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In 1830, during a debate in the French Chamber ofPeers regarding state recognition of the Jewish faith, Admiral Verhuell declared himself unable to forgive the Jews whom he hadmet during his travels throughout the world either for their refusal to recognize Jesus as the Messiah or for their possession ofthe Talmud. In the same year the Abbé Chiarini published at Paris a voluminous work entitled "Théorie du Judaïsme," in which heannounced a translation of the Talmud, advocating for the first time a version which should make the work generally accessible,and thus serve for attacks on Judaism. In a like spirit modern anti-Semitic agitators have urged that a translation be made; andthis demand has even been brought before legislative bodies, as in Vienna. The Talmud and the "Talmud Jew" thus became objects ofanti-Semitic attacks, although, on the other hand, they were defended by many Christian students of the Talmud.

Standardized volumes of the Talmud make no mention of Jesus per se, and little mention of the early Christians. Thereare a number of quotes about a man named "Yeshu" that once existed in editions of the Talmud; these quotes were long ago removedfrom the main text and are no longer used in Talmud study. However, these removed quotes were preserved through rare printings oflists of errata, known as Hashmatot Hashass ("Omissions of the Talmud"). Some modern editions of the Talmudcontain some or all of this material, either at the back of the book, in the margin, or in alternate print.

These deleted section deal with false messiahs named Yeshu or Yeshuva. Note that in the Talmud the name "Yeshua" became astand-in for many people considered to be false Jewish messiahs in early rabbinic Judaism, both real people and legendary. Manyof the stories are far removed from anything written in the NewTestament ; many scholars are convinced that some of these people, often identified as "Jesus", cannot be about the ChristianJesus. Instead, they are a conflation of views about early Christianity, views of previous Jewish messiah claimants, andlegend.

Charges of racism

Many groups attempt to use the Talmud to promote the idea that Judaism is inherently racist. This is usually done throughfabrication of quotes, and quote-mining. The Anti-Defamation League issued a report on this topic:

By selectively citing various passages from the Talmud and Midrash, polemicists have sought to demonstrate that Judaismespouses hatred for non-Jews (and specifically for Christians), and promotes obscenity, sexual perversion, and other immoralbehavior. To make these passages serve their purposes, these polemicists frequently mistranslate them or cite them out of context(wholesale fabrication of passages is not unknown)...
In distorting the normative meanings of rabbinic texts, anti-Talmud writers frequently remove passages from their textual andhistorical contexts. Even when they present their citations accurately, they judge the passages based on contemporary moralstandards, ignoring the fact that the majority of these passages were composed close to two thousand years ago by people livingin cultures radically different from our own. They are thus able to ignore Judaism’s long history of social progress andpaint it instead as a primitive and parochial religion.
Those who attack the Talmud frequently cite ancient rabbinic sources without noting subsequent developments in Jewishthought, and without making a good-faith effort to consult with contemporary Jewish authorities who can explain the role of thesesources in normative Jewish thought and practice.

Gil Student, an expert on exposing anti-Talmud accusations, writes that "Anti-Talmud accusations have a long history datingback to the 13th century when the associates of the Inquisition attempted to defame Jews and their religion [see Yitzchak Baer,A History of Jews in Christian Spain, vol. I pp. 150-185]. The early material compiled by hateful preachers like RaymondMartini and Nicholas Donin remain the basis of all subsequent accusations against the Talmud. Some are true, most are false andbased on quotations taken out of context, and some are total fabrications [see Baer, ch. 4 f. 54, 82 that it has been proven thatRaymond Martini forged quotations]. On the internet today we can find many of these old accusations being rehashed..."


The most renowned Orthodox Talmud scholars of the 20th century include:

The most renowned Conservative Talmud scholars of the20th century include Louis Ginzberg , Saul Lieberman , Judith Hauptman , David Weiss Halivni and Jacob Neusner .

The daily page

Thousands of Orthodox Jews worldwide participate in Daf Yomi - literally the daily page (of Talmud) - as part of amonumental program. Daf Yomi was initiated by Rabbi Meir Shapiro in 1923 at the First World Congress of Agudath Israel in Vienna . With 2711 pages in the Talmud, one cycletakes about 7.5 years. Daf Yomi is now in its 11th cycle of study, which began September 29 , 1997 .


Translations of Talmud Bavli

There are a number of contemporary translations of the Talmud:

  • The Soncino Hebrew-English Talmud Isidore Epstein, Soncino Press. In this translation, each English page faces theHebrew page. Notes on each page provide additional background material. See also: Soncino Talmud site .
  • The Talmud: The Steinsaltz Edition Adin Steinsaltz ,Random House.
  • The Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud, Mesorah Publications.

Translations of Talmud Yerushalmi

Talmud of the Land of Israel: A Preliminary Translation and Explanation Jacob Neusner , Univ. of Chicago Press. This translation uses a form-analytical presentation which makes thelogical units of discourse easier to identify and follow. However, Neusner's translation methodology is idiosyncratic, and thiswork has received a great deal of criticism.

See also



  • Maimonides Introduction to the Mishneh Torah ( English translation )
  • Adin Steinsaltz The Essential Talmud (Basic Books,1984). ISBN 0465020631
  • Nathan T. Lopes Cardozo The Infinite Chain : Torah, Masorah, and Man (Philipp Feldheim, 1989). ISBN 0944070159
  • R. Travers Herford Christianity in Talmud and Midrash (Ktav Pub Inc, 1975). ISBN 0870684833

Historical study

  • Shalom Carmy (Ed.) Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah: Contributions and Limitations Jason Aronson, Inc.
  • Louis Jacobs , "How Much of the Babylonian Talmud is Pseudepigraphic?"Journal of Jewish Studies 28, No. 1 (1977), pp. 46-59
  • Richard Kalmin Sages, Stories, Authors and Editors in Rabbinic Babylonia Brown Judaic Studies
  • David C. Kraemer, On the Reliability of Attributions in the Babylonian Talmud, Hebrew Union College Annual 60(1989), pp. 175-90
  • Lee Levine, Ma'amad ha-Hakhamim be-Erez Yisrael (Jerusalem: Yad Yizhak Ben-Zvi, 1985), (=The Rabbinic Class of RomanPalestine in Late Antiquity)
  • Saul Lieberman Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (New York:Jewish Theological Seminary, 1950)
  • Jacob Neusner Sources and Traditions: Types of Compositions inthe Talmud of Babylonia (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992).
  • David Weiss Halivni Mekorot u-Mesorot:Eruvin-Pesahim (Jerusalem: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1982)
  • Finding A Home for Critical Talmud Study , DavidBigman, Rosh Yeshivah, Yeshivat Ma'ale Gilboa

External links

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