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This article forms part of the series
Vocabulary of Islam
Five Pillars
Profession of faith
Prayer - Alms
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Holy Cities
Mecca - Medina
Najaf - Karbala
Hijra - Islamic calendar - Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Adha - Aashura - Arba'in
Mosque - Minaret
Mihrab - Kaaba
Muezzin - Imam - Mullah
Ayatollah - Mufti
Texts and laws
Qur'an - Hadith - Sunnah
Sura - Fiqh - Fatwa
Sharia - Hisba
Sunni - Shi'a
Hanafi - Maliki
Shafi'i - Hanbali
Wahhabism - Salafism
Twelvers - Ismailism
Mu'tazili - Druze
Asharism - Sufism

The Hadith (الحديث, pl. Ahadith) is a body of laws, legends andstories about Muhammad 's way of life, (Arabic, Sunnah which includes his biography or the sira ) and the sayingsthemselves where he elaborated on his choices or offered advice; many parts of the Hadith deal with his companions(Sahaba).

For most Muslims, the hadith contains an authoritative exposition of the meaning of the Qur'an . Islamic law is derived from the acts, statements,opinions, and ways of life of Muhammad. Traditional Muslims believe the Islamic scholars of the last 1400 years were for the mostpart successful in determining the accuracy of many of the hadith they came across.

The Hadith literature, as a whole, was handed down orally until the mid 700s (less than100 years after Muhammad and his companions), at which point collections of Hadith were written and later edited. This processwas called isnad , or "backing", describing the editorial reduction, and it took twoforms:

  • musnad - classification according to the names of the traditionists
  • mu'annaf - classification according to subject; edited according to the content.

Different branches of Islam ( Sunni and Shi'a ) accept different hadith collections as genuine.

As the Talmud is to Torah in Judaism, theHadith is to the laws of the Qur'an in Islam. The Hadith is the authoritative interpretation of the Qur'an, even where thecurrent practice is at odds with the plain meaning of the text. Islamic law has some flexibility as some traditions of theProphet were considered nullified by later sayings of him.

Over time, due to different social, religious and political considerations, many hadith collections developed. A consensus ofIslamic scholars weighed various collections, and judged them to be in one of the following categories: "genuine" (sahih,the best category), "fair" (hasan, the middle category), and "weak" (da'if).

By the ninth century six collections of hadiths were accepted as reliable by Muslims, although they varied in how many theyconsidered authentic: al-Bukhari (d. 870) accepted 7275, while Abu Muslim (d. 875) accepted 9200. The other four well known and widely used colltionsare those of Abu Da'ud (d. 888), al-Tirmidhi (d. 892), al-Nasa'i (d. 915), and Ibn Maja (d. 886). More compilations havedeveloped over time, but these six hold the greatest weight.

A few sample hadith. Unlike the Qur'an itself, Muslims accept these words as thoseof Muhammad , which can be translated much as anyone else's words:

  • "The world is green and beautiful and God has appointed you his steward over it."
  • "The whole earth was been created as a place of worship, pure and clean."
  • "Little, but sufficient, is better than the abundant and the alluring."
  • "The superiority of the learned man over one who only worships is like the superiorty of the moon when it is full, coveringthe stars. The learned are the heirs of the Prophets who do not leave a legacy of dirhams and dinars but only of knowledge."
  • "God has not created anything better than reason, or anything more perfect or more beautiful than reason. The benefits whichGod gives are on its account; and understanding is by it, and God's wrath is caused by it, and by it are rewards andpunishment."
  • "Poverty may sometimes lead to disbelief."
  • "God is gentle and loves gentleness in all things."
  • "Hasten to do good before you are overtaken by perplexing adversity, corrupting prosperity, disabling disease, babblingdotage and sudden death."
  • "Beware of envy for envy devours good works like the fire devours fuel."
  • "Beware of suspicion for suspicion is a great falsehood."
  • "Let the younger one salute the elderly, let the one who is walking salute the one sitting and let those who are small innumber salute those who are large in number."
  • "Were it not for fear of troubling my followers, I would order them to clean their teeth before every prayer."

As these examples reveal, the hadith often have blunt advice for Muslims that enters the realm of professional choices or political culture or philosophy - akin in influence toviews of Aristotle .

One reason they have been so carefully examined, and why strict consensus on authenticity of each has not been possible to thepresent day. Very often, specific hadith have been used to justify specific cultural practices, e.g. of Islamic banking or consensus decision making , and fiqh , which are notnecessarily mandatory to Islam and change with the times ( al-urf ).

As an example of how contentious this can be, the exhortation to "let those who are small in number salute those who are largein number", along with the observation that Muhammad did not appoint but directed his followers to select their own leader, hasbeen interpreted in both early Muslim philosophy and modern Islamic philosophy as being an endorsementof some form of democracy , or "the ijma ofthe ummah " not merely of the ulema (scholars,jurists). This demonstrates also the importance of Muhammad's actions as reported in the sira and not just his sayings, the hadith.

Since scholars and jurists have a conflict of interest in reporting accurately any hadith that would limit their power, and alike conflict in promoting hadith that elevate the learned or the scholarly or the scientific method of reason they prefer, it is difficult totell how the selection and interpretation of the hadith altered Muslim civilization and today affect the Islamic World . This is true of all historical information, but traditional Muslims believe that those Islamicscholars of hadith whose work has been accepted over the centuries were of noble character and were primarily interested inconveying the truth.

Daily life of Muslims relies also on sira or the stories that constitute the biographyof Muhammad. As the sunnah consists of both sira and hadith, a Muslim may consulteither before choosing actions.

See also: Islam , Oral law , sira , isnad , early Muslim philosophy , list of Islamic terms in Arabic

External links

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