Labor law or labour law is the body of laws ,administrative rulings, and precedents which address the relationship between and among employers, employees, and labor organizations , often dealing with issues of public law . It is distinguished between employment law which deals only with employment contracts and issues regarding employment andworkplace discrimination and other private law issues.
Hours of Labor
Before the Industrial Revolution , the workday variedbetween 11 and 14 hours. With the growth of capitalism and the introduction ofmachinery, longer hours became far more common, with 14-15 hours being the norm, and 16 not at all uncommon.
The first law on the length of a working day was passed in 1833 in England, limitingminers to 12 hours, and children to 8 hours. The 10-hour day was established in 1848 , andshorter hours with the same pay were gradually accepted thereafter. In the United States , employers generally accepted the 8-hour day as of 1912 .The Wages and HoursAct of 1938 set the maximum standard work week to 44 hours, and in 1950 this was reduced to 40 hours.
Unions were legalised in 1825 , although agreements among members to seek better hoursand wages were punishable as conspiracy until 1871 . In the United States, the Norris-LaGuardiaAct of 1932 outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes, the 1935 Wagner Act , which led to the establishment of the National Labor Relations Board required employers to accept collective bargaining . The Taft-Hartley Act in 1947 greatly altered the labor resolutionsof the 1930s to a more conservative standpoint, and introduced a 80-day injunction procedure in labor disputes that were deemedto affect the national welfare.
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