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Earth science


Earth science (also known as geoscience or the geosciences), is anall-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth . Itis arguably a special case in planetary science , being the onlyknown life -bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth science. The majorhistoric disciplines use physics , mathematics , chemistry , and biology to build a quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of the Earthsystem:

However, given the numerous interactions between the spheres many modern fields take an interdisciplinary approach and thus do not sit comfortably in thisscheme:

  • Biogeochemistry and Geomicrobiology follow the cycling of elements through the spheres mediated by biologicaland geological processes, and especially their distribution and fluxes between reservoirs.

Furthermore, other modern disciplines known collectively as Earth systemscience approach the entire Earth as a system in itsown right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedbacks between constituent systems:

  • Meteorology describes, explains and predicts the weather based on the interaction of principally the ocean and atmosphere.
  • Climatology describes and explains the climate in terms of the interaction of the litho-, hydro-, atmo-, cryo-, and bio-spheres.
  • Gaia theories explain thebehaviour of the Earth system in terms of the influence of the biosphere.

Like all other scientists, earth scientists apply the scientificmethod : formulate hypotheses after observation of and gathering data about natural phenomena and then test those hypotheses.In earth science, data usually plays a critical role in testing and formulating hypotheses. The systems approach , enabled by the combined use of computer models as hypotheses tested by global satellite and ship-board data, isincreasingly giving scientists the ability to explain the past and possible future behaviour of the Earth system.


Partial list of the major Earth Science topics






Atmospheric Science


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