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Forestry is the art and science and practice of studying andmanaging forests and related natural resources . Much research and development has been invested in learning about managing forestecosystems, improving varieties of trees , and in better methods of planting, pest control,thinning, controlled burning , felling, and extraction and ofprocessing timber into usable products. The art and science of managing forests for itsmany uses is called silviculture.

In many countries, the forest industry is of major ecological, economic, andsocial importance. Third-party certification systems that provide independent verification of sound forest stewardship andsustainable forestry have become commonplace in many areas since the 1990s.

A division has arisen in recent years between advocates of active forest management and those who want to see nomanagement.

Growing concerns about environmental problems arising from massive deforestation (especially in the rain forests ) haverecently put forestry and its implications into the spotlight.

Sir Dietrich Brandis is considered the father of tropicalforestry.

Forestry education

The first dedicated forestry school was established by George Hartig at Dillenburg in Germany in 1787, though forestry had already been taught for a long time before then in central Europe . The first forestry school in NorthAmerica was near Asheville , North Carolina , in the AppalachianMountains of the southeastern U.S. , where George Vanderbilt saw the devastation that logging had leftbehind. The grounds of his Biltmore Estate are almost entirelymanaged forest, which has grown from bare ground to mature trees since 1895 .

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