Engineering is the application of science to the needs of humanity. This is accomplished through knowledge , mathematics , and practical experience applied to the design of useful objects or processes . Professional practitioners of engineering are called engineers .
Compared to other professions
Engineering is concerned with the implementation of a solution to a practical problem. A scientist may ask "why?" and proceedto research the answer to the question. By contrast, engineers want to know how to solve a problem and how to implementthat solution.
In other words, scientists investigate phenomena, whereas engineers create solutions to problems or improve upon existingsolutions. However, in the course of their work, scientists may have to complete engineering tasks (such as: designingexperimental apparatus, or building prototypes), while engineers may occasionally have to do scientific research.
A scientist builds in order to learn. An engineer learns in order to build.
As an illustrative example, on November 21, 1877, Thomas A.Edison developed the phonograph — a remarkable feat of engineering.Then, he directed his assistant (the technologist) to improve the device further by removing harmonics from the sound output.
The task of engineering
The engineer must identify and understand the relevant constraints in order to produce a successful result. Constraintsinclude available resources, physical or technical limitations, flexibility for future modifications and additions, and otherfactors such as requirements for cost, manufacturability, and serviceability. By understanding the constraints, engineers deducespecifications for the limits within which an object or system may be produced and operated. Engineering is therefore influencedby many considerations.
Engineers use their knowledge of science and mathematics , and appropriate experience , to find suitable solutions to a problem.Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a problem allowsthem to analyze it (perhaps, but exceptionally, definitively), and to test potential solutions. If multiple reasonable solutionsexist, engineers evaluate the different design choices on their meritsand choose the solution that best meets the requirements.
Engineers typically attempt to predict how well their designs will perform to their specifications prior to full-scaleproduction. They use, among other things: prototypes , scale models , simulations , destructive tests , nondestructive testing , and stress tests .Testing ensures that products will perform as expected. Engineers as professionals take seriously their responsibility to producedesigns that will perform as expected and will not cause unintended harm to the public at large. Engineers typically include a factor of safety in their designs to reduce the risk of unexpectedfailure.
Use of computers
Computers and design software, play an increasingly important role. Using computer aided design (CAD) software, engineers are able to capture more information about theirdesigns. The computer can automatically translate some models to instructions suitable for automatic machinery (e.g., CNC ) to fabricate (part of) a design. The computer also allows increased reuse of previouslydeveloped designs by presenting an engineer with a library of predefined parts ready to be used in designs.
Additionally, engineers make use of a variety of circuit schematics softwareto aid in the creation of circuit designs that perform an electronic task when used for a printed circuit board (PCB) or a computer chip.
It is a myth that engineer originated to describe those who built engines .In fact, the words engine and engineer (as well as ingenious) developed in parallel from the Latinroot ingeniosus, meaning "skilled". An engineer is thus a clever, practical, problem solver. The spelling ofengineer was later influenced by back-formation from engine. The term later evolved to include all fields wherethe skills of application of the scientific method are used. Insome other languages, such as Arabic, the word for "engineering" also means "geometry".
Connections to other disciplines
Science attempts to explain newly observed and unexplained phenomena, oftencreating mathematical models of observed phenomena. Technology and engineering are attempts at practical application of knowledge (oftenfrom science). Scientists work on science; engineers work on technology. However, there is often an overlap between science andengineering. It is not uncommon for scientists to become involved in the practical application of their discoveries; therebybecoming, for the moment, engineers. Conversely, in the process of developing technology engineers sometimes find themselvesexploring new phenomena, thus becoming, for the moment, scientists.
There are significant parallels between the practice of medicine andengineering. Both professions are well known for their pragmatism — the solution to real world problemsoften requires moving forward before phenomenea are completely understood in a more rigorous scientific sense.
There are also close connections between the workings of engineers and artists; they are direct in some fields, for example, architecture / landscape architecture and industrialdesign , and indirect in others. Artistic and engineering creativity may be fundamentally connected.
Engineers in culture
Historically, engineering has been seen as a somewhat dry, uninteresting field in popular culture , and has also been thought to be the domain of nerds (with little of the romance that attaches to hacker culture). For example, the cartooncharacter Dilbert is an engineer.
In science-fiction , also thought to be the domain of nerds , engineers are often portrayed as highly knowledgeable and respectable individuals whounderstand the overwhelming future technologies often portrayed in the genre. The Star Trek characters Montgomery Scott and Geordi LaForge are famous examples.
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