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Geophysics, the study of the earth by quantitative physical methods, especially by seismic reflection and refraction , gravity , magnetic , electrical, electromagnetic , and radioactivity methods.

It includes the branches of:

  1. Seismology ( earthquakes and elastic waves )
  2. Gravity and geodesy (the earth's gravitational field and the size and form of theearth)
  3. Atmosphericelectricity and terrestrial magnetism (including ionosphere , Van Allen belts , telluric currents , Radiant energy , etc.)
  4. Geothermometry (heatingof the earth, heat flow, volcanology , and hot springs)
  5. Hydrology (ground and surface water, sometimes including glaciology )
  6. Physical oceanography
  7. Meteorology
  8. Tectonophysics (geological processes in the earth)
  9. Exploration and engineering geophysics
  10. Engineering geology

A related field is geochemistry .

Exploration geophysics is the use of seismic, gravity, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic, etc.,methods in the search for oil , gas , minerals , water , etc., with the objective of economicexploitation. The Society ofExploration Geophysicists ( seg.org ) has the most recent update of the sciences and technologies of explorationgeophysics (see also petroleum geology ).

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