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# Calculus

(calculus)

Calculus is a branch of mathematics , developed from algebra and geometry , involving twomajor complementary ideas: The first, called differential calculus is a theory about rates of change , and involves the method of differentiation ; in terms of mathematical functions , velocity , acceleration , and slopes of curves at a given point can all be discussed on a common symbolic basis. The second, called integralcalculus, involves the idea of integration , and uses a general idea of area bounded by the graphof a function , to include related concepts such as volume .

The two concepts define inverse operations , in a sense madequite precise by the fundamental theoremof calculus . This means that either may in fact be given priority, but the usual educational approach is to introducedifferential calculus first.

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## History

See main article History of calculus

The development of calculus is credited to Archimedes , Leibniz and Newton .However, when calculus was first being developed, there was a controversy to who came up with the idea "first" - Leibniz andNewton being the contenders for the crown. The truth of the matter will likely never be known, and in any case is unimportant toanyone alive today. Leibniz' great contribution to calculus was his notation , and this is beyond doubt purely of Leibniz's invention. The controversy was unfortunatehowever in that it divided english-speaking mathematicians from those in Europe for many years. This set back British analysis(i.e. calculus-based mathematics) for a very long time. Newton's terminology and notation was clearly less flexible than that ofLeibniz, yet it was retained in British usage until the early 19th century, when the work of the Analytical Society successfully saw the introduction of Leibniz'snotation in Great Britain.

It is thought that Newton had discovered several ideas related to calculus earlier than Leibniz had, however Leibniz was thefirst to publish. Today, both Leibniz and Newton are considered to have discovered calculus independently.

Lesser credit for the development of calculus is given to Barrow , Descartes , de Fermat , Huygens , and Wallis . A Japanese mathematician, KowaSeki , lived at the same time as Leibniz and Newton and also elaborated some of the fundamental principles of integralcalculus, though this was not known in the West at the time, and he had no contact with Western scholars. [1]

One of the primary motives for the development of differential calculus was the solution of the so-called " tangent line problem".

## Differential calculus

Main article derivative

Differential calculus is concerned with finding the instantaneous rate of change (or derivative) of afunction's value , with respect to changes of the function's arguments . This idea lies at the heart of most of the physical sciences . For example basic theory of electrical circuits is formulated in terms of differential equations , to describe the cases where there is oscillation .

The derivative of a function is directly relevant to finding its maxima and minima — because those are points at which the graph is (expected to be) flat. Anotherapplication of differential calculus is Newton's method , an algorithm to find zeroes of a function byapproximating the function by its tangents . These are just some of a large number ofways in which calculus is applied in questions that at first sight are not formulated in calculus terms.

de Fermat is sometimes described as the "father" of differentialcalculus.

## Integral calculus

Main article integral

Integral calculus studies methods for finding the integral of a function; whichmay be defined as the limit of a sum of terms, each of whichcorresponds to a small strip of area under the graph of a function. Considered as such, integration provides effective ways tocalculate the area under a curve, and the surface area and volume of solidssuch as spheres and cones .

## Foundations

The conceptual foundations of calculus include the notions of functions , limits , infinite sequences , infiniteseries , and continuity . Its tools include the symbol manipulationtechniques associated with elementary algebra , and mathematical induction . The modern version of calculus is knownas real analysis ; this consists of a rigorous derivation of the resultsof calculus as well as generalisations such as measure theory and functional analysis .

## Fundamental theorem of calculus

The fundamental theorem ofcalculus states that differentiation and integration are, in a certain sense, inverse operations. It was this realization byNewton and Leibniz that was the key to the explosion of analytic results after their work became known. This connection allows usto recover the total change in a function over some interval from its instantaneous rate of change, by integrating the latter.The fundamental theorem also provides a method to compute many definite integrals algebraically, without actually performing thelimit processes, by finding antiderivatives . It also allows us to solvesome differential equations , equations that relate anunknown function to its derivatives. Differential equations are ubiquitous in the sciences.

## Applications

The development and use of calculus has had wide reaching effects on nearly all areas of modern living. It underlies nearlyall of the sciences , and especially physics . Almost all modern developments such as building techniques, aviation , and nearly all other technologies make fundamental use of calculus.

Calculus has been extended to differential equations , vector calculus , calculus of variations , complexanalysis , time scale calculus and differential topology .

• Robert A. Adams. (1999) ISBN0-201-39607-6 Calculus: A complete course.
• Spivak, Michael. (Sept 1994) ISBN0914098896 "Calculus" Publish or Perish publishing.
• Cliff Pickover . (2003) ISBN 0-471-26987-5 Calculus and Pizza: AMath Cookbook for the Hungry Mind.
• Silvanus P.Thompson and Martin Gardner . (1998) ISBN 0312185480 Calculus MadeEasy.
• Albers, Donald J.; Richard D. Anderson and Don O. Loftsgaarden, ed. Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and ComputerSciences: The 1985-1986 Survey, Mathematical Association of America No. 7, 1986.
• Calculus for a New Century; A Pump, Not a Filter. Mathematical Association of America, The Association, Stony Brook, NY.1988. ED 300 252.

## Other uses of the term

In mathematics and related fields, the term calculus moregenerally refers to a system of formal rules of inference and axioms that are used for computation .

This usage is particularly common in mathematical logic , where acalculus is applied to compute universally true statements of a certain formallogic. Examples include the calculus of natural deduction , the sequent calculus , as well as many other calculi that are deviced in proof theory .

Derived from the Latin word for "pebble", calculus in its most general sensecan mean any method or system of calculation . Other topics where the termcalculus is used in this sense include:

• In medicine a calculus refers to a stone formed in the bodysuch as a gall stone . See calculus(medicine)
 Topics in mathematics related to change Arithmetic | Calculus | Vector calculus | Analysis | Differentialequations | Dynamical systems and chaos theory | List of functions

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