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Organic chemistry

(organicchemistry)





Organic chemistry is the scientific study of the structure,properties, composition, reactions , and synthesis of organic compounds .

Contents

Organic nomenclature

Organic nomenclature is the system established fornaming and grouping organic compounds .

Aliphatic compounds

Hydrocarbons - Alkanes - Alkenes - Dienes or Alkadienes - Alkynes - Halogenoalkanes - Alcohols - Mercaptans - Ethers - Aldehydes - Ketones - Carboxylic acids - Esters - Carbohydrates - Alicyclic compounds - Amides - Amines - Lipids - Nitriles

Aromatic compounds

Benzene - Toluene - Xylene - Aniline - Phenol - Acetophenone - Benzonitrile - Halogenoarenes - Naphthalene - Anthracene - Phenanthrene - Benzopyrene - Coronene - Azulene - Biphenyl

Heterocyclic compounds

Pyridine - Pyrrole - Thiophene - Furan - Imidazole

Polymers

Polymers are a special kind of molecule. Generally considered "large" molecules, polymers are get their reputation regardingsize because they are molecules that consist of multiple smaller segments. The segments could be chemically identical, whichwould make such a molecule a homopolymer. Or the segments could be vary in chemical structure, which would make that molecule aheteropolymer. Polymers are a subset of "macromolecules" which is just a classification for all molecules that are consideredlarge.

Polymers can be organic or inorganic. Commonly-encountered polymers are usually organic (eg. polyethylene, polypropylene,Plexiglas, etc). But inorganic polymers are also familiar to everyday items (eg. silly putty, silicone, etc).

Concepts

Organic nomenclature - Chemical formula - Structuralformula - Skeletal formula - Organic reaction

Characteristics of organic substances

The reason that there are so many carbon compounds is that carbon has the ability to form many carbon chains of differentlengths, and rings of different sizes ( catenation ). Many carbon compounds areextremely sensitive to heat , and generally decompose below 300'C. They tend to be less soluble in water compared to many inorganicsalts. In contrast to such salts, they tend to be much more soluble in organic solvents such as ether or alcohol . Organic compounds are covalently bonded .

Characterizing the molecular structure of organic compound

The single most useful tool to characterize the molecular structure of an organic compound is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Proton NMR tells howhydrogen atoms are grouped in an organic molcule and how they are situated relative to one another and to other atoms. Carbon-13NMR tells similarly about carbon atoms in a molecule and how they are connected to hydrogens. For a molecule of moderate size(<30 atoms), a single NMR spectrum is what it takes to figure out the structure.

History

Organic chemistry as a science is generally agreed to have started in 1828 with Friedrich Woehler 's synthesis of the organic, biologically significant compound urea byaccidentally evaporating an aqueous solution of ammonium cyanate (NH4OCN).

See also


Chemistry

Analytical chemistry | Organicchemistry | Inorganic chemistry | Physical chemistry | Polymer chemistry | Biochemistry | Materials science | Environmental chemistry | Pharmacy | Thermochemistry | Electrochemistry | Nuclear chemistry | Computational chemistry
Periodic table | List of compounds



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