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Advertising

(advertising)





Advertising is the paid promotion of goods , services , companies and ideas , byan identified sponsor. Marketers see advertising as part of an overall promotional strategy. Other components of the promotionalmix include publicity , public relations , personal selling , and sales promotion .

Contents

History of Advertising

In ancient times the most common form of advertising was by word of mouth. However, commercial messages were found in theruins of Pompeii . As printing developed in the 15th and 16th century, the first stepstowards modern advertising were taken. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England, anda century later advertising had become a popular thing.

As the economy was expanding during the 19th century, the need for advertising grew at the same pace. In 1843 the first advertising agency wasestablished by Volney Palmer in Philadelphia . At first the agencies were just brokers for ad space innewspapers, but in the 20th century, advertising agencies started to take over responsibility for the content as well.

Advertising media

Some commercial advertising media include: billboards , printed flyers , radio , cinema and television ads, web banners , skywriting , bus stop benches, magazines , newspapers , town criers , sides of buses , taxicab doors and roof mounts, musical stage shows , elastic bands on disposable diapers, stickers on apples in supermarkets, theopening section of streaming audio and video, and the backs of event tickets. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to delivertheir message through a medium is advertising. Covert advertising embedded in otherentertainment media is known as product placement .

The TV commercial is generally considered the mosteffective mass-market advertising format and this is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtimeduring popular TV events. The annual US Super Bowl football game is known asmuch for its commercial advertisements as for the game itself, and the average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during thisgame has reached $2.3 million (as of 2004 ).

Advertising on the World Wide Web is a recent phenomenon. Prices ofWeb-based advertising space are dependent on the "relevance" of the surrounding Web content. E-mail advertising is another recentphenomenon. Unsolicited E-mail advertising is known as " spam ".

Some companies have proposed to place messages or corporate logos on the side of booster rockets and the International SpaceStation . Controversy exists on the effectiveness of subliminaladvertising (see mind control ), and the pervasiveness of mass messages(see propaganda ).

Unpaid advertising (also called word of mouth advertising), canprovide good exposure at minimal cost. Personal recommendations ("bring a friend", "sell it by zealot"), the unleashing of memes into the wild, or achieving the feat of equating a brand with a common noun (" Hoover " = " vacuum cleaner ") -- these must provide the stuff of fantasy to the holder of an advertising budget.

Advertising objectives

The purpose of advertising is to stimulate demand for a product, service, or idea. Other factors influencing demand are priceand substitutability. A major way advertising may stimulate demand is to create a brand franchise for a product. Kleenex , for example, can distinguish itself as a type of tissue. But, because ithas successfully attained a brand franchise among consumers, it is frequently used as a generic term. One of the most successfulfirms to have achieved a brand franchise is Hoover, whose name was for a very long time synonymous with vacuum cleaner (and Dyson has subsequently managed to achievesimilar status, having moved into the Hoover market with a more sophisticated model of vacuum cleaner).

A brand franchise can be established to a greater or lesser degree depending on product and market. In Texas , for example, it is common to hear people refer to any soft drink as a Coke, regardless of whether it is actually produced by Coca-Cola or not (the more accurate term would be 'cola').

A legal risk of the brand franchise is that the name can become so widely accepted that it becomes a generic term, and loses trademark protection. Examples include " escalator ", " aspirin " and " mimeograph ".

Other objectives include short or long term increases in sales, market share, awareness, product information, and imageimprovement.

Advertising techniques

Advertisers use several recognizable techniques in order to better convince the public to buy a product. These mayinclude:

  • Repetition : Some advertisersconcentrate on making sure their product is widely recognized. To that end, they simply attempt to make the name rememberedthrough repetition.
  • Bandwagon : By implying that the product iswidely used, advertisers hope to convince potential buyers to "get on the bandwagon."
  • Testimonials : Advertisers often attempt to promote thesuperior quality of their product through the testimony of ordinary users, experts, or both. "Three out of four dentistsrecommend..." This approach often involves an appeal toauthority .
  • Pressure: By attempting to make people choose quickly and without long consideration, some advertisers hopeto make rapid sales: "Buy now, before they're all gone!"
  • Association : Advertisersoften attempt to associate their product with desirable things, in order to make it seem equally desirable. The use of attractive models , picturesque landscapes, and other similar imagery is common."Buzzwords" with desired associations are also used.
  • Subliminal messages : although probablyoverrated in the sense that nobody would still contemplate to use controversial subliminal messages, seen the hoy-polloy (even incourt) created over the possibility that such messages were included in some hardrock music (...in a manner that would probably not even create a measurable effect), subliminal messages are at the same timeprobably underrated, while they are so common: "subliminal" in its neutral sense means "targetting the unconscious".Psychologists generally agree that any of the techniques mentioned above will have the more effect the more they are subliminallyused. E.g. when presenting a new car in "vacation" context (using the association technique) it is better to do this not soblatantly that the receiver of the message starts to think consciously "what nonsense, as if I would go more on vacation whendriving that car", but that at an unconscious level he associates the feel of holidays with the car: in this sense, well chosenbut seemingly "unnoticable" details or associations in an advertisement prove often to be more effective than the apparentlyconveyed message.

Public Service Advertising

The same advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform, educate and motivate thepublic about serious non-commercial issues, such as AIDS, energy conservation, and deforestation.

Advertising, in its non-commercial guise, is a powerful educational tool capable of reaching and motivating large audiences."Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest - it is much too powerful a tool to use solely forcommercial purposes." - Attributed to Howard Gossage by David Ogilvy

Public service advertising , non-commercialadvertising , public interest advertising, cause marketing, and social marketing are different terms for (or aspects of) theuse of sophisticated advertising and marketing communications techniques (generally associated with commercial enterprise) onbehalf of non-commercial, public interest issues and initiatives.

See also

Bait and switch , Beauty advertising , Sex inadvertising , Brand , Clio Awards , Nudity , Subvertising , Propaganda model , marketing , neon signage , promotion , trailer , Ethics inAdvertising

External links

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