History of zoology
Main articles: History of zoology (before Darwin) , History of zoology (since Darwin)
Branches of biology relevant to zoology
The original branches of zoology established in the late 19th century such as zoo-physics, bionomics and morphography, have largely been subsumed into more broad areas of biology which includestudies of mechanisms common to both plants and animals. The biology of animals is covered in several broad areas:
Systems of classification
Main article: Systems of zoological classification
Morphography includes the systematic exploration and tabulation of the facts involved in the recognition of all the recent andextinct kinds of animals and their distribution in space and time. (1) The museum -makers of old days and their modern representatives the curators and describers of zoological collections,(2) early explorers and modern naturalist travellers and writers on zoo-geography,and (3) collectors of fossils and palaeontologists are the chief varieties of zoological workers comingunder this heading. Gradually, since the time of Hunter and Cuvier , anatomical study has associated itself with the more superficial morphography untiltoday no one considers a study of animal form of any value which does not include internal structure, histology and embryology in its scope.
The real dawn of zoology after the legendary period of the Middle Ages isconnected with the name of an Englishman , Edward Edward Wotton ,born at Oxford in 1492 , who practised as a physician in London and died in 1555 . He published a treatise De differentiisanimalium at Paris in 1552 . In manyrespects Wotton was simply an exponent of Aristotle , whose teaching, - withvarious fanciful additions, constituted the real basis of zoological knowledge throughout the Middle Ages. It was Wotton's meritthat he rejected the legendary and fantastic accretions, and returned to Aristotle and the observation of nature.
The most ready means of noting the progress of zoology during the 16th , 17th and 18th centuries is to compare Aristotle's classificatory conceptions of successive naturalists with those which are to be found in theworks of Caldon .
Sources and external links
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